Analgesic:

A treatment for pain.

Analgesic electrotherapy:

Therapeutic technique using currents as a therapeutic agent in order to relieve the pain associated with certain medical conditions.

Arthralgic:

Relating to joint pains.

Aura(s):

Clinical symptom appearing before the onset of the attack and disappearing at the moment when the migraine pains begin or during the minutes immediately afterwards, without leaving any after-effects (visual, motor, auditory, etc.).

Autonomic:

Relating to the autonomic nervous system whose role is to regulate all vital automatic functions (heart, breathing, digestion, reproduction, etc.).

Catamenial migraines:

Particular type of migraine associated with menstruation.

Cervical:

Relating to the neck.  

Cluster headaches:

A disorder resembling migraines which is characterised by severe, recurrent pain with autonomic symptoms around the eye and temple (always on one side of the face), primarily affecting men.

 

Curative:

Describes a treatment of which the aim is to cure, as opposed to palliative treatment, which aims simply to provide relief.

Deafferentation:

Lesion of the sensory nerve pathways which blocks information coming from the periphery of the cortical neurons in the corresponding area.

Electrotherapeutic:

Relating to electrotherapy.

Electrotherapy:

Therapeutic technique using currents as a therapeutic agent.

Endorphin(s):

Natural substances produced by neurons which have an analgesic effect comparable to that of morphine, and are used in the painkilling endorphin system.

Headache(s):

Pain of the cephalic extremity, i.e. the head, irrespective of its origin.

Inhibitory:

Refers to a circuit, a neuron or a neurotransmitter (a chemical produced by neurons) whose role is to block the action of the circuit or neuron on which it acts.

Medical electrotherapy:

Therapeutic technique using currents as a therapeutic agent in order to treat certain medical conditions with the goal of curing them.

Medical physiotherapy:

Therapeutic technique using physical agents as therapeutic agents in order to treat medical conditions with a curative aim.

Meninges:

Membranes protecting the brain and spinal cord and through which blood vessels pass.

Menstrual cycle:

Periodic succession of utero-vaginal phenomena in women triggered by ovarian secretions to prepare the genital tract for egg implantation.

Migraine(s):

Hemifacial pain which may cover the whole head area, occurring in episodic attacks, with associated autonomic, digestive, mental, and sometimes transient neurological symptoms which disappear without sequelae.

Neuralgia:

Pain affecting the nerves.

Neurochemical:

Relating to the chemistry of the central and peripheral nervous system (the brain and nerves respectively).

Neurotransmission:

Transmission of nerve impulses from one neuron to the next by the release of a substance (neurotransmitter) that acts on a specific receptor located on the next neuron.

Occipital neuralgia:

Migraine pains involving compression of the occipital nerve, causing pain at the back of the head.

Ophthalmic:

Relating to the eye.

Ophthalmic migraine:

Particular type of migraine preceded by visual disturbances (scintillating scotoma) that last a few seconds to hours before the onset of pain and which disappear without sequelae.

Palliative:

Refers to a treatment which aims simply to provide relief, as opposed to curative treatment, which aims to cure.

Physiotherapy:

Therapeutic technique using physical agents (currents, electromagnetic waves, ultrasound, vibration, light, radiation) as therapeutic agents.

Post-herpetic neuralgia:

Nervous deafferentation pains due to damage caused by the varicella zoster virus and following an outbreak of shingles.

Sensory hyperstimulation:

Overstimulation of the sensory organs, especially sight and hearing, by intense light or noise.

Serotonin:

Neurotransmitter within neurological and general circuits which is involved in many activities: pain, blood vessel and smooth muscle contraction, digestion, emotions, sleep, etc.

Shingles:

Disease caused by destruction of the sensory fibres of a peripheral nerve by the varicella zoster virus, following reactivation of the latent virus in the spinal ganglion of this nerve.

TENS:

Currents used in electrotherapy to stimulate the nerves by way of application of the current using electrodes placed on the skin according to the nerve to be treated.

Tension headaches:

Type of headache which appears to be linked either to physical contraction of the muscles in the neck area, or to physical tension with or without muscle contraction in the neck area.

Trigeminal nerve:

Fifth cranial nerve, mainly responsible for the motor functions and sensory innervation of the face by three terminal branches: ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular.

Trigeminal neuralgia "from the cold":

Neuralgia following regressing facial paralysis of which the partially known cause is thought to be related to cold exposure.

Trigeminovascular theory:

Theory, currently partially accepted, which attributes a major role to the trigeminal nerve, meningeal vessels and skull base in explaining the origin of migraines.

Tolerance:

The need for more frequent treatment in order to obtain the same therapeutic effect.


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